Parking Policy and Trip generation

Approval Date— April 28, 2022


Project Identification

Project Number 13310


Boston Region Metropolitan Planning Organization (MPO)

Project Supervisors

Principal: TBD
Manager: Benjamin Sadkowski

Funding Source

MPO §5303 Planning Contract #13310

Schedule and Budget

Schedule: 5 months after work commences

Budget: $20,000

Schedule and budget details are shown in Exhibits 1 and 2, respectively.


An important component of managing the traffic impacts of development is understanding the influence that municipal parking-requirement policies have upon trip generation—the study of predicting to what extent and how people travel to and from developments and other locations. Subsequently, through proper analysis and policy design, municipalities implementing effective parking-related policies may effectively meet larger goals in the Boston region to reduce overall vehicle-miles traveled (VMT) and traffic congestion in their respective geographic areas.

Central Transportation Planning Staff (CTPS) has conducted efforts in order to better understand best practices for developing trip generation rates for urban areas that better account for non-auto trips through the FFY 2020 Unified Planning Work Program(UPWP) study Innovations in Estimating Trip Generation Rates and the FFY 2021 UPWP study Trip Generation Rate Research. Through these studies, CTPS has been able to build upon initial efforts compiled in the Institute of Transportation Engineers rate estimate guidelines by exploring alternative methods for conducting trip generation analysis. While the aforementioned studies yielded myriad of insights, one finding of note was that trip generation analysis cannot exist in a vacuum and, as such, planners should consider policy-based frameworks for implementing more effective outcomes in local municipalities.

In order to advance upon this research further, this study will build upon prior studies and explore the relationship between the amount of available parking at development sites and automotive ownership and usage, including in geographic areas with adequate public transit connectivity. In this study, staff will explore the current, extensive body of literature in order to identify the degree to which parking-related policies may impact rates of vehicle ownership, travel mode preferences, and ultimately roadway design and funding decisions. Additionally, staff will access existing datasets on various geographic scales, such as the American Community Survey and the Metropolitan Area Planning Council’s (MAPC) Perfect Fit Parking study, in order to compare and ground national parking trends and practices in the Boston region. Finally, staff will document their research efforts, which will be summarized and presented in the form of a white paper and a set of graphical fact sheets that may be distributed to municipal planning staff in order to inform planning boards and municipalities of the importance of implementing effective parking policies to meet regional goals for reducing VMT and traffic congestion.


The primary objectives of this study are as follows:

  1. Identify innovative approaches to using parking policy to reduce auto ownership and use to better inform the enactment of new parking policy mechanisms that may improve overall trip-generation rates by reducing automotive trips in both new and existing developments.
  2. Inform ongoing trip-generation and parking policy-related work in the region.

Work Description

This study will be completed according to the following tasks:

Task 1  Coordination Efforts

CTPS will attend both new and previously scheduled coordination meetings with other agencies in the Boston region engaged in similar work, including MAPC and the Massachusetts Department of Transportation.

Task 2  Literature and Data Review

Staff will review the existing data sets and literature to identify innovative approaches to using parking-related policy measures to reduce auto ownership, VMT, and traffic congestion. When promising innovative approaches are found, staff will identify and reach out to relevant parties to obtain more detailed information on specific policy implementation methods, metrics, and other strategies.


Products of Task 2

Summary of literature review, relevant data sets, and research notes

Task 3  Project Documentation

CTPS will document its work efforts in a white paper and graphical fact sheets, ready for dissemination to both the public and other planning professionals and agencies.

Products of Task 3

White paper and graphical fact sheets documenting the results of the literature review, data, and parking-policy research efforts.


Exhibit 1
Parking Policy and Trip Generation

1 2 3 4 5
Coordination Efforts
From Month 1, Week 1 to Month 5, Week 4.
Literature and Data Review
From Month 1, Week 1 to Month 4, Week 4.
Project Documentation
From Month 4, Week 1 to Month 5, Week 4.
Delivered by Month 5, Week 3.
Delivered by Month 5, Week 4.
A: White Paper
B: Graphical Fact Sheets


Exhibit 2
Parking Policy and Trip Generation

Direct Salary and Overhead


Person-Weeks Direct
M-1 P-4 P-2 Total
Coordination Efforts
0.1 0.0 0.5 0.7 $890 $971 $1,861
Literature and Data Review
0.1 0.0 4.0 4.2 $5,164 $5,633 $10,798
Project Documentation
0.3 1.1 1.2 2.6 $3,511 $3,830 $7,341
0.6 1.1 5.7 7.4 $9,565 $10,435 $20,000

Other Direct Costs



MPO §5303 Planning Contract #13310



The Boston Region Metropolitan Planning Organization (MPO) operates its programs, services, and activities in compliance with federal nondiscrimination laws including Title VI of the Civil Rights Act of 1964 (Title VI), the Civil Rights Restoration Act of 1987, and related statutes and regulations. Title VI prohibits discrimination in federally assisted programs and requires that no person in the United States of America shall, on the grounds of race, color, or national origin (including limited English proficiency), be excluded from participation in, denied the benefits of, or be otherwise subjected to discrimination under any program or activity that receives federal assistance. Related federal nondiscrimination laws administered by the Federal Highway Administration, Federal Transit Administration, or both, prohibit discrimination on the basis of age, sex, and disability. The Boston Region MPO considers these protected populations in its Title VI Programs, consistent with federal interpretation and administration. In addition, the Boston Region MPO provides meaningful access to its programs, services, and activities to individuals with limited English proficiency, in compliance with U.S. Department of Transportation policy and guidance on federal Executive Order 13166.

The Boston Region MPO also complies with the Massachusetts Public Accommodation Law, M.G.L. c 272 sections 92a, 98, 98a, which prohibits making any distinction, discrimination, or restriction in admission to, or treatment in a place of public accommodation based on race, color, religious creed, national origin, sex, sexual orientation, disability, or ancestry. Likewise, the Boston Region MPO complies with the Governor's Executive Order 526, section 4, which requires that all programs, activities, and services provided, performed, licensed, chartered, funded, regulated, or contracted for by the state shall be conducted without unlawful discrimination based on race, color, age, gender, ethnicity, sexual orientation, gender identity or expression, religion, creed, ancestry, national origin, disability, veteran's status (including Vietnam-era veterans), or background.

A complaint form and additional information can be obtained by contacting the MPO or at To request this information in a different language or in an accessible format, please contact

Title VI Specialist
Boston Region MPO
10 Park Plaza, Suite 2150
Boston, MA 02116

By Telephone:
857.702.3702 (voice)

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For more information, including numbers for Spanish speakers, visit

A draft of the report will be forthcoming.